In my last post, on the IAGRG30 Conference held at BITS Hyderabad, I had mentioned how during my talk I was corrected by Amitabh Virmani on a seemingly technical point. My talk was on connecting String Theory with Loop Quantum Gravity and as is inevitable in any such talk I opened with a brief description of the AdS/CFT (Anti-deSitter/Conformal Field Theory) correspondence which is nowadays one of the best understood models for a theory of quantum gravity.

The statement I made, which Virmani objected to was the following:

… Anti-deSitter is a compact space …

On the face of it, this is a manifestly incorrect statement and therefore Amitabh was perfectly justified in pointing out the error in what I said. However, the story does not end there. As I will argue in this post, it is valid to consider anti-deSitter spacetime as a “compact” space and that it is precisely this property of AdS geometry which makes feasible the possibility of experimentally realizing the AdS/CFT conjecture in a laboratory.

# Anti-deSitter Spacetime

For the uninitiated the metric of a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole is given by [1]:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:ads-schwarzschild}

d s^{2}=-F(r) d t^{2}+\frac{d r^{2}}{F(r)}+r^{2}\left(d \theta^{2}+\sin ^{2} \theta d \varphi^{2}\right)

\end{equation}

where the function $F(r)$ is given by:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:ads-schwarzschild-radial}

F(r)=1-\frac{2 G M}{r} + \frac{r^{2}}{L^{2}}

\end{equation}

Here $M$ is the mass of the black hole, and $L$ is the “AdS length” which is related to the (negative) cosmological constant by:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:ads-length}

\Lambda = – \frac{3}{L^2}

\end{equation}

In the limit that $ L \rightarrow \infty $ ($\Lambda \rightarrow 0 $), the metric reduces to that of a Schwarzschild black hole embedded in asymptotically flat space:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:schwarzschild}

d s^{2}=-\left(1-\frac{2 G M}{r}\right) d t^{2}+\frac{d r^{2}}{\left(1-\frac{2 G M}{r}\right)}+r^{2}\left(d \theta^{2}+\sin ^{2} \theta d \varphi^{2}\right)

\end{equation}

“Asymptotically” is a fancy word which means “at infinity”, i.e. as one moves radially outwards from the center of the spacetime and ($r \rightarrow \infty \Rightarrow F(r) \rightarrow 0) $, the metric in \eqref{eqn:schwarzschild} reduces to that of a flat Minkowski spacetime:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:minkowski}

d s^{2}=-d t^{2}+ d r^{2}+r^{2}\left(d \theta^{2}+\sin ^{2} \theta d \varphi^{2}\right)

\end{equation}

Similarly, if in \eqref{eqn:ads-schwarzschild-radial} we send the mass of the black hole to zero $ M \rightarrow 0$ we are left with the metric of an Anti-deSitter spacetime in the so-called “static co-ordinates” [2]:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:ads-metric}

d s^{2}=-\left(1 + \frac{r^2}{L^2} \right) d t^{2}+\frac{d r^{2}}{\left(1 + \frac{r^2}{L^2} \right)}+r^{2}\left(d \theta^{2}+\sin ^{2} \theta d \varphi^{2}\right)

\end{equation}

# Compact Spaces

Let me remind the reader what is meant by the mathematical term “compact space“. Consider the real number line which is set of all points between $-\infty$ and $+\infty$:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:real-line}

\mathbb{R} = \left\{ x : x \in (-\infty, +\infty) \right\}

\end{equation}

This is a non-compact or “open” set because its boundary, the points at infinity, are not elements of the set. Likewise consider the Minkowski spacetime whose metric is given by \eqref{eqn:minkowski}. This spacetime stretches off to infinity in both the radial and timelike directions, i.e. $ r \in (-\infty, +\infty) $ and $ t \in (-\infty, +\infty) $. One can “compactify” both the real line and Minkowski space by adding the “point at infinity” to the definition of the respective sets. However, there are many sets which are *bona-fide* compact sets without any need for compactification. These include:

1. any closed interval on the real line: $ \left[ a, b \right] $, i.e. the set of all points between $a$ and $b$ (inclusive)

2. a circle $S^1$

3. a two-sphere $S^2$, or

4. a ball (the union of the two-sphere with all the points in its interior).

From this perspective the anti-deSitter spacetime with the metric given by \eqref{eqn:ads-metric} is *topologically* a non-compact space, since its co-ordinates take values in a non-compact set: $ r \in (-\infty, +\infty)$ and $t \in (-\infty, +\infty)$.

# Topological Compactness vs. Metric Compactness

However, there is an important sense in which the AdS metric \eqref{eqn:ads-metric} describes a compact space. The geometry of spatial slices of this spacetime ($ t = \text{constant} $) are described the metric:

\begin{equation}\label{eqn:ads-spatial-metric}

ds_{x}^2 = \frac{d r^{2}}{\left(1 + \frac{r^2}{L^2} \right)}+r^{2}\left(d \theta^{2}+\sin ^{2} \theta d \varphi^{2}\right)

\end{equation}

where I have put a subscript $x$ on the line element $ds_x^2$ to indicate that this metric is purely spatial. Now the spherical part of this metric is given by the usual flat space expression: $ r^2 d\Omega^2 $, however, as $r \rightarrow \infty$ the length of a radial line interval becomes shorter because of the presence of the $(1 + r^2/L^2)^{-1}$ factor in the purely radial part $g_{rr}$ of the metric.

Thus, even though the spatial sections of anti-deSitter are not *topologically* compact, they are *metric(ally)* compact. This is shown in the above figure created by the great illustrator of paradoxical geometric designs – M. C. Escher. This is a tiling of the two-dimensional hyperbolic plane with tiles of two different colors. Technically it takes an infinite number of tiles to cover the region within the circle. However, since the metric of the hyperbolic plane is of the form \eqref{eqn:ads-spatial-metric}, the size of tiles decreases – with respect to the metric in the ambient space with the usual flat metric – as one takes the limit $ r \rightarrow \infty $.

# AdS in the Laboratory

It is precisely this metric compactness of anti-deSitter which opens the door to the possibility of experimentally verifying the AdS/CFT conjecture in a *real-world* laboratory! There are still some people who would argue that the gravitational bulk theory in this conjecture is a purely mathematical construct which does not have any relevance for real life. However, it is rapidly becoming apparent to the community at large that this correspondence is more than just a theoretical idealization. The bulk AdS spacetime is no less real than Maxwell’s waves or Planck’s photons. No less a figure than Leonard Susskind is willing to stick his neck out and state as much [3]. Of course, it is perhaps a sign of how delicate this issue is that even a giant such as Susskind felt compelled to couch his statement not in the form of a formal paper but as an informal “letter to colleagues”. To quote from his paper [3]:

Where there is quantum mechanics, there is also gravity.I suggest that this is true in a very strong sense; even for systems that are deep into the non-relativistic range of parameters—the range in which the Newton constant is negligibly small, and and the speed of light is much larger than any laboratory velocity. This may sound like a flight of fantasy, but I believe it is an inevitable consequence of things we already accept.

There are other papers, however, which are somewhat less timid about investigating the possible experimental realization of this “flight of fancy” and have suggested possibilities for concrete experimental realizations of holography in condensed matter systems. An example is the paper by Chen et al. [4] (published in PRL, no less!). This paper also does not quite make the explicit statement that given a condensed matter system living on the boundary of some geometry (such as a circle or a sphere) one can expect the bulk geometry to exhibit the generation of an *effective* AdS metric. It approaches this goal in a somewhat indirect manner^{1}.

It is now well understood that the SYK model for strongly interacting fermions (named after its originators – Subir Sachdev and Jinwu Ye [5] – and after the person who linked it to quantum gravity in a talk at KITP around 2008 – Alexei Kitaev) is a viable candidate to describe the domain of spacetime within a black hole embedded in an anti-deSitter spacetime. As shown by various authors over the past decade [6, 7, 8] black hole interiors can be understood as quantum many body systems which are maximally chaotic^{2}. It is this correspondence between the appearance of a chaotic many-body phase and quantum gravity that is exploited in the work by Chen et al. [4]. They argue that a graphene flake with irregular boundaries can provide the experimental setting for observing such a phenomenon in the laboratory.

In [9] Danshita et al. argue that one can achieve the “experimental realizations of quantum black holes” in the laboratory by using ultra-cold fermionic gases in optical lattices. Here also the authors make use of the correspondence between the SYK model and black hole interiors to make the case for experimental realization of holography.

# Imaging AdS Black Holes

The most remarkable paper, in my opinion, is the very recent work by Hashimoto et al. [1] which has the very direct title of “*Imaging black holes through AdS/CFT*“.

They show, via detailed analytic and numerical calculations the manner in which the emergent AdS black hole in the interior of a spherical shell can be observed in the laboratory. The primary ingredient in 2D quantum many body system to lie on a closed spherical surface whose state can be tuned to lie close to that of a thermal conformal field theory state. As is well-understood [2], such a boundary state would correspond to a black hole (at a temperature $T$ equal to that temperature of the boundary CFT) embedded in the emergent bulk anti-deSitter geometry in the interior of the shell.

Suitable perturbations applied the CFT degrees of freedom on one side of the shell will propagate through the three-dimensional bulk. Assuming that holography can be taken literally one would expect these perturbations to scatter from the emergent black hole in the bulk. Probes placed on the opposite side of the shell could then detect the response of the CFT and the result can be compared to their theoretical prediction. In the event a black hole is created, the response function will of the form shown in the following figure.

This response function is essentially identical to the images of distant astronomical objects formed due to gravitational lensing. One such example is shown in the following image.

Of course, none of these experimental suggestions would even be *feasible* in the first place unless anti-deSitter spacetime was indeed metrically compact in the manner I have described in this post. When confronted during my talk with this objection by the towering figure of Amitabh Virmani I was unable to muster a coherent response. Hopefully the arguments presented in the post will put to rest the question of whether or not, and in what sense, can anti-deSitter spacetime be considered “compact”.

- Perhaps, it is this cautious approach that helped it get accepted in PRL. Though, of course, there is the well known saying that “caution is the better part of bravery”. ↩
- As shown by Maldacena, Shenker and Stanford in 2015 [10], there is an upper bound on how rapidly any quantum – and hence, also any classical – system can become chaotic. This bound manifests as an upper limit on the Lyapunov exponent of the so-called OTOC (Out of Time Order Correlator) or four-point correlation functions of a field theory. ↩

[Bibtex]

```
@article{Hashimoto2018Imaging,
Abstract = {Clarifying conditions for the existence of a gravitational
picture for a given quantum field theory (QFT) is one of
the fundamental problems in the AdS/CFT correspondence. We
propose a direct way to demonstrate the existence of the
dual black holes: Imaging an Einstein ring. We consider a
response function of the thermal QFT on a two-dimensional
sphere under a time-periodic localized source. The dual
gravity picture, if exists, is a black hole in an
asymptotic global AdS{\$}{\_}4{\$} and a bulk probe field
with a localized source on the AdS boundary. The response
function corresponds to the asymptotic data of the bulk
field propagating in the black hole spacetime. We find a
formula which converts the response function to the image
of the dual black hole: The view of the sky of the AdS bulk
from a point on the boundary. Using the formula, we
demonstrate that, for a thermal state dual to the
Schwarzschild-AdS{\$}{\_}4{\$} spacetime, the Einstein ring
is constructed from the response function. The evaluated
Einstein radius is found to be determined by the total
energy of the dual QFT.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {1811.12617},
Author = {Hashimoto, Koji and Murata, Keiju and Kinoshita, Shunichiro},
Date-Added = {2018-12-11 11:16:36 +0530},
Date-Modified = {2019-03-12 15:39:53 +0530},
Eprint = {1811.12617},
File = {:Users/deepak/mendeley/Hashimoto, Murata, Kinoshita{\_}Imaging black holes through AdSCFT{\_}2018.pdf:pdf},
Title = {{Imaging black holes through AdS/CFT}},
Url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.12617},
Year = {2018},
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Bdsk-Url-1 = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1811.12617}}
```

[Bibtex]

```
@article{Natsuume2014AdS/CFT,
Abstract = {{This is the draft version of a textbook on "real-world"
applications of the AdS/CFT duality for beginning graduate
students in particle physics and for researchers in the
other fields. The aim of this book is to provide background
materials such as string theory, general relativity,
nuclear physics, nonequilibrium physics, and
condensed-matter physics as well as some key applications
of the AdS/CFT duality in a single textbook. Contents: (1)
Introduction, (2) General relativity and black holes, (3)
Black holes and thermodynamics, (4) Strong interaction and
gauge theories, (5) The road to AdS/CFT, (6) The AdS
spacetime, (7) AdS/CFT - equilibrium, (8) AdS/CFT - adding
probes, (9) Basics of nonequilibrium physics, (10) AdS/CFT
- nonequilibrium, (11) Other AdS spacetimes, (12)
Applications to quark-gluon plasma, (13) Basics of phase
transition, (14) AdS/CFT - phase transition.}},
Arxiv = {1409.3575},
Author = {Natsuume, Makoto},
Date-Added = {2016-04-13 17:13:12 +0000},
Date-Modified = {2016-04-13 23:02:06 +0530},
File = {FULLTEXT:/home/dvaid/physicistatwork.com/librarian/library/pdfs/01/02031.pdf:PDF},
Title = {{AdS/CFT Duality User Guide}},
Url = {{http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.3575}},
Year = {{2014}},
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Bdsk-Url-1 = {%7Bhttp://arxiv.org/abs/1409.3575%7D}}
```

[Bibtex]

```
@article{Susskind2017Dear,
Abstract = {These are some thoughts contained in a letter to colleagues, about the close relation between gravity and quantum mechanics, and also about the possibility of seeing quantum gravity in a lab equipped with quantum computers. I expect this will become feasible sometime in the next decade or two.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {1708.03040},
Author = {Susskind, Leonard},
Date-Added = {2019-03-12 16:49:10 +0530},
Date-Modified = {2019-03-12 16:49:11 +0530},
Eprint = {1708.03040},
File = {:Users/deepak/ownCloud/root/research/mendeley/Susskind{\_}Dear Qubitzers, GR=QM{\_}2017.pdf:pdf},
Mendeley-Groups = {Black Hole Phase Transitions,Tensor Networks MPS MERA},
Month = {aug},
Title = {{Dear Qubitzers, GR=QM}},
Url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.03040},
Year = {2017},
Bdsk-File-1 = {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},
Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1708.03040}}
```

[Bibtex]

```
@article{Chen2018Quantum,
Abstract = {Electrons in clean macroscopic samples of graphene exhibit
an astonishing variety of quantum phases when strong
perpendicular magnetic field is applied. These include
integer and fractional quantum Hall states as well as
symmetry broken phases and quantum Hall ferromagnetism.
Here we show that mesoscopic graphene flakes in the regime
of strong disorder and magnetic field can exhibit another
remarkable quantum phase described by holographic duality
to an extremal black hole in two dimensional anti-de Sitter
space. This phase of matter can be characterized as a
maximally chaotic non-Fermi liquid since it is described by
a complex fermion version of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model
known to possess these remarkable properties.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {1802.00802},
Author = {Chen, Anffany and Ilan, R. and {De Juan}, F. and Pikulin, D. I. and Franz, M.},
Date-Added = {2018-08-23 11:15:45 +0530},
Date-Modified = {2018-08-23 11:15:48 +0530},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.036403},
Eprint = {1802.00802},
File = {:Users/deepak/mendeley/Chen et al.{\_}Quantum Holography in a Graphene Flake with an Irregular Boundary{\_}2018.pdf:pdf},
Issn = {10797114},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Number = {3},
Title = {{Quantum Holography in a Graphene Flake with an Irregular Boundary}},
Url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1802.00802 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.036403 https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.00802},
Volume = {121},
Year = {2018},
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Bdsk-Url-2 = {https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.036403}}
```

[Bibtex]

```
@article{Sachdev1993Gapless,
Abstract = {We examine the spin-{\$}S{\$} quantum Heisenberg magnet
with Gaussian-random, infinite-range exchange interactions.
The quantum-disordered phase is accessed by generalizing to
{\$}SU(M){\$} symmetry and studying the large {\$}M{\$}
limit. For large {\$}S{\$} the ground state is a
spin-glass, while quantum fluctuations produce a spin-fluid
state for small {\$}S{\$}. The spin-fluid phase is found to
be generically gapless - the average, zero temperature,
local dynamic spin-susceptibility obeys
{\$}\backslashbar{\{}\backslashchi{\}} (\backslashomega )
\backslashsim \backslashlog(1/|\backslashomega|) + i
(\backslashpi/2) \backslashmbox{\{}sgn{\}}
(\backslashomega){\$} at low frequencies. This form is
identical to the phenomenological
``````
marginal' spectrum
proposed by Varma {\{}$\backslash$em et. al.$\backslash$/{\}} for the doped cuprates.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {cond-mat/9212030},
Author = {Sachdev, Subir and Ye, Jinwu},
Date-Added = {2017-11-13 10:28:58 +0000},
Date-Modified = {2017-11-13 15:59:00 +0530},
Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.3339},
Eprint = {9212030},
File = {:Users/deepak/mendeley/files/Sachdev, Ye{\_}Gapless spin-fluid ground state in a random quantum Heisenberg magnet{\_}1993.pdf:pdf},
Issn = {00319007},
Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
Keywords = {condensed matter,gapless,heisenberg model,holography,infinite-range,many body,quantum gravity,sachdev-ye model,sachdev{\_}subir,spin-glass,su{\_}n,syk model,ye{\_}jinwu},
Mendeley-Tags = {sachdev{\_}subir,ye{\_}jinwu,sachdev-ye model,syk model,holography,condensed matter,heisenberg model,many body,infinite-range,su{\_}n,spin-glass,gapless,quantum gravity},
Month = {dec},
Number = {21},
Pages = {3339--3342},
Pmid = {10053843},
Primaryclass = {cond-mat},
Title = {{Gapless spin-fluid ground state in a random quantum Heisenberg magnet}},
Url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/9212030 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.3339},
Volume = {70},
Year = {1993},
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Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/9212030%20http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.3339},
Bdsk-Url-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.3339}}</code></pre></div> <div id="paperkey_15" class="papercite_entry">[6] <a href='http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/120' class='papercite_doi' title='View document in publisher site'><img src='https://www.quantumofgravity.com/blog/wp-content/plugins/papercite/img/external.png' width='10' height='10' alt='[doi]' /></a> P. Hayden and J. Preskill, "Black holes as mirrors: quantum information in random subsystems," <span style="font-style: italic">Journal of high energy physics</span>, vol. 2007, iss. 09, p. 120, 2007. <br/> <a href="javascript:void(0)" id="papercite_15" class="papercite_toggle">[Bibtex]</a></div> <div class="papercite_bibtex" id="papercite_15_block"><pre><code class="tex bibtex">@article{Hayden2007Black,
Abstract = {We study information retrieval from evaporating black
holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole
is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the
retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking
radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already
proceeded past the "half-way" point, where half of the
initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional
quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed
in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information
deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed
until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These
conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are
efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that
nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel.
Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time,
based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely
compatible with the black hole complementarity
hypothesis.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Author = {Hayden, Patrick and Preskill, John},
Citeulike-Article-Id = {7839813},
Citeulike-Linkout-0 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/0708.4025},
Citeulike-Linkout-1 = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/0708.4025},
Citeulike-Linkout-2 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/120},
Citeulike-Linkout-3 = {http://iopscience.iop.org/1126-6708/2007/09/120},
Date-Added = {2013-04-14 00:35:04 +0530},
Date-Modified = {2013-04-14 00:35:04 +0530},
Day = {21},
Doi = {10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/120},
Eprint = {0708.4025},
Issn = {1029-8479},
Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
Keywords = {black\_holes, complementarity, entanglement, error\_correction, evaporation, hawking\_radiation, hayden\_patrick, preskill\_john, quantum\_circuits, quantum\_gravity},
Month = sep,
Number = {09},
Pages = {120},
Posted-At = {2013-04-13 20:03:32},
Priority = {2},
Title = {Black holes as mirrors: quantum information in random subsystems},
Url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/120},
Volume = {2007},
Year = {2007},
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Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/09/120}}</code></pre></div> <div id="paperkey_16" class="papercite_entry">[7] <a href='http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/065' class='papercite_doi' title='View document in publisher site'><img src='https://www.quantumofgravity.com/blog/wp-content/plugins/papercite/img/external.png' width='10' height='10' alt='[doi]' /></a> Y. Sekino and L. Susskind, "Fast scramblers," <span style="font-style: italic">Journal of high energy physics</span>, vol. 2008, iss. 10, p. 65, 2008. <br/> <a href="javascript:void(0)" id="papercite_16" class="papercite_toggle">[Bibtex]</a></div> <div class="papercite_bibtex" id="papercite_16_block"><pre><code class="tex bibtex">@article{Sekino2008Fast,
Abstract = {We consider the problem of how fast a quantum system can
scramble (thermalize) information, given that the
interactions are between bounded clusters of degrees of
freedom; pairwise interactions would be an example. Based
on previous work, we conjecture: 1) The most rapid
scramblers take a time logarithmic in the number of degrees
of freedom. 2) Matrix quantum mechanics (systems whose
degrees of freedom are n by n matrices) saturate the bound.
3) Black holes are the fastest scramblers in nature. The
conjectures are based on two sources, one from quantum
information theory, and the other from the study of black
holes in String Theory.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {0808.2096},
Author = {Sekino, Yasuhiro and Susskind, L.},
Date-Added = {2018-01-26 04:55:40 +0000},
Date-Modified = {2018-01-26 04:55:42 +0000},
Doi = {10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/065},
Eprint = {0808.2096},
File = {:Users/deepak/mendeley/files/Sekino, Susskind{\_}Fast scramblers{\_}2008.pdf:pdf},
Isbn = {1126-6708},
Issn = {11266708},
Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
Keywords = {AdS-CFT correspondence,Black holes,Black holes in string theory,M(atrix) theories},
Number = {10},
Pages = {065},
Title = {{Fast scramblers}},
Url = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/065/meta http://stacks.iop.org/1126-6708/2008/i=10/a=065?key=crossref.0eebed9ef6bfd908b2747d054e345a56},
Volume = {2008},
Year = {2008},
Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/065/meta%20http://stacks.iop.org/1126-6708/2008/i=10/a=065?key=crossref.0eebed9ef6bfd908b2747d054e345a56},
Bdsk-Url-2 = {https://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2008/10/065}}</code></pre></div> <div id="paperkey_17" class="papercite_entry">[8] <a href='http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067' class='papercite_doi' title='View document in publisher site'><img src='https://www.quantumofgravity.com/blog/wp-content/plugins/papercite/img/external.png' width='10' height='10' alt='[doi]' /></a> S. H. Shenker and D. Stanford, "Black holes and the butterfly effect," <span style="font-style: italic">Journal of high energy physics</span>, vol. 2014, iss. 3, 2014. <br/> <a href="javascript:void(0)" id="papercite_17" class="papercite_toggle">[Bibtex]</a></div> <div class="papercite_bibtex" id="papercite_17_block"><pre><code class="tex bibtex">@article{Shenker2014Black,
Abstract = {We use holography to study sensitive dependence on initial
conditions in strongly coupled field theories.
Specifically, we mildly perturb a thermofield double state
by adding a small number of quanta on one side. If these
quanta are released a scrambling time in the past, they
destroy the local two-sided correlations present in the
unperturbed state. The corresponding bulk geometry is a
two-sided AdS black hole, and the key effect is the
blueshift of the early infalling quanta relative to the
{\$}t = 0{\$} slice, creating a shock wave. We comment on
string- and Planck-scale corrections to this setup, and
discuss points that may be relevant to the firewall
controversy.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {1306.0622},
Author = {Shenker, Stephen H. and Stanford, Douglas},
Date-Added = {2018-01-26 04:55:40 +0000},
Date-Modified = {2018-01-26 10:25:42 +0530},
Doi = {10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067},
Eprint = {1306.0622},
File = {:Users/deepak/mendeley/files/Shenker, Stanford{\_}Black holes and the butterfly effect{\_}2014.pdf:pdf},
Issn = {10298479},
Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
Keywords = {AdS-CFT Correspondence,Black Holes},
Mendeley-Groups = {AdS/CFT,BTZ Black Holes},
Month = {jun},
Number = {3},
Title = {{Black holes and the butterfly effect}},
Url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.0622 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067},
Volume = {2014},
Year = {2014},
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Bdsk-Url-2 = {https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2014)067}}</code></pre></div> <div id="paperkey_18" class="papercite_entry">[9] I. Danshita, M. Hanada, and M. Tezuka, "How to make a quantum black hole with ultra-cold gases," , 2017. <br/> <a href="javascript:void(0)" id="papercite_18" class="papercite_toggle">[Bibtex]</a></div> <div class="papercite_bibtex" id="papercite_18_block"><pre><code class="tex bibtex">@article{Danshita2017How-to-make,
Abstract = {The realization of quantum field theories on an optical
lattice is an important subject toward the quantum
simulation. We argue that such efforts would lead to the
experimental realizations of quantum black holes. The basic
idea is to construct non-gravitational systems which are
equivalent to the quantum gravitational systems via the
holographic principle. Here the
```

' means that
two theories cannot be distinguished even in principle.
Therefore, if the holographic principle is true, one can
create actual quantum black holes by engineering the
non-gravitational systems on an optical lattice. In this
presentation, we consider the simplest example: the
Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. We design an experimental
scheme for creating the SYK model with use of ultra-cold
fermionic atoms such as Lithium-6.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {1709.07189},
Author = {Danshita, Ippei and Hanada, Masanori and Tezuka, Masaki},
Date-Added = {2017-09-24 17:46:45 +0000},
Date-Modified = {2017-09-24 23:16:46 +0530},
Eprint = {1709.07189},
File = {:Users/deepak/mendeley/files/Danshita, Hanada, Tezuka{\_}How to make a quantum black hole with ultra-cold gases{\_}2017.pdf:pdf},
Keywords = {analog{\_}gravity,black holes,cold atoms,condensed matter,fermions,holography,lqg,many body,optical lattices,quantum gravity,string{\_}theory,syk model},
Mendeley-Tags = {holography,cold atoms,syk model,quantum gravity,black holes,optical lattices,fermions,analog{\_}gravity,condensed matter,many body,string{\_}theory,lqg},
Month = {sep},
Title = {{How to make a quantum black hole with ultra-cold gases}},
Url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1709.07189},
Year = {2017},
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Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1709.07189}}

[Bibtex]

```
@article{Maldacena2016A-bound,
Abstract = {We conjecture a sharp bound on the rate of growth of chaos in thermal quantum systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. Chaos can be diagnosed using an out-of-time-order correlation function closely related to the commutator of operators separated in time. We conjecture that the influence of chaos on this correlator can develop no faster than exponentially, with Lyapunov exponent {\$}\backslashlambda{\_}L \backslashle 2 \backslashpi k{\_}B T/\backslashhbar{\$}. We give a precise mathematical argument, based on plausible physical assumptions, establishing this conjecture.},
Archiveprefix = {arXiv},
Arxivid = {1503.01409},
Author = {Maldacena, Juan and Shenker, Stephen H. and Stanford, Douglas},
Date-Added = {2019-03-12 23:55:02 +0530},
Date-Modified = {2019-03-12 23:55:03 +0530},
Doi = {10.1007/JHEP08(2016)106},
Eprint = {1503.01409},
Isbn = {1029-8479},
Issn = {10298479},
Journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics},
Keywords = {1/N Expansion,AdS-CFT Correspondence,Black Holes},
Month = {mar},
Number = {8},
Pmid = {13394073},
Title = {{A bound on chaos}},
Url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/jhep08(2016)106},
Volume = {2016},
Year = {2016},
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Bdsk-Url-1 = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/jhep08(2016)106}}
```